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How to Make Activated Carbon from Rice Husk?

As a member of the biomass activated carbon family, rice husk activated carbon is prepared from rice husks. Various activated carbon manufacturers favor rice husk because of its large output, low price, easy access, cleanness, and regeneration. Because rice husk has high silicon content, small porosity, and rough texture, activated carbon from rice husk has a strong adsorption capacity for various organic compounds. It does not contain harmful impurities (lead, arsenic, etc.), and can be used for water treatment. and other industries.

Raw material

Natural rice husk

Similar husk-based raw materials

Peanut shell, palm kernel shell, pine cones shell

Material Advantages

Rice hulls consist of cellulose, hexoses, pentoses, lignin, ash, and extractable extracts. Lignin is an amorphous polymer with a crossed structure and a backbone of phenylpropane monomers. Cellulose is the essential component of the cell wall of higher plants, and its thermal stability is lower than that of lignin. Rice husk is an excellent raw material for preparing activated carbon, and the chemical composition of rice husk is similar to that of different types of wood.

The utilization rate of rice husk resources is not high. Except for a small part that is used as primary fuel, feed, building materials, or fuel for energy production, most of them are treated as agricultural waste, and the comprehensive utilization rate is less than 10%. For a long time, most of the burned rice husk ash has not only been untreated, it not only wastes resources but also seriously pollutes the environment. The preparation of activated carbon from rice husk and rice husk ash is a new discovery in biomass activated carbon preparation, which has been widely used in recent years.

Other Husk-based Activated Carbon

Activated carbon from groundnut shell

Peanut shells contain a lot of lignin and fiber, which are good raw materials for making activated carbon. Peanut shell activated carbon has a wide range of uses, such as decolorization and purification of sugar liquid, oil, pharmaceuticals, etc., can be used for gas absorption, separation, and purification, and can also be used as a catalyst or catalyst carrier.

Activated carbon derived from pine cones of pinus roxburghii

Rosa roxburghii pine has a wide planting area, and the yield of roxburghii pine cones is high. The main components of dried pine cone powder are C and O, which account for more than 99% of the total atomic weight, of which C element content is 58.68%, and O element content is 40.07%, which is a good material for preparing activated carbon.

Palm kernel shell activated carbon

Palm shell activated carbon is a biomass activated carbon product made from high-quality palm shells. Because of its large specific surface area, stable chemical properties, and durability, it is widely used in food, beverage, water treatment, medicine, brewing, chemical, metallurgy, flue gas purification, and other industries.

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Preparation Method of Rice Husk-based Activated Carbon

activated carbon manufacturing process

Physical activation

The essence of physical activation is the oxidation of carbon. Commonly used activators include steam and carbon dioxide. The physical activation method is relatively mature, simple, and clean. The prepared activated carbon cannot be used directly, but the activation temperature is high, the energy consumption is high, and the water evaporation process of rice husk is relatively mature. The surface of rice husks activated by steam was larger than that activated by carbon dioxide. The waste heat of the activation system can generate water vapor, so it is mainly used in industrial production, while carbon dioxide activation is mainly used in laboratories. The water vapor generation speed is fast, but it is difficult to obtain activated carbon with a larger surface area; carbon dioxide activation can prepare activated carbon with a larger specific surface area. Activation can take tens or even hundreds of hours.

Chemical activation

When preparing high-quality activated carbon, the alkaline activator can realize the joint production of activated carbon and high-quality white carbon black. The non-carbonization stage of the activator H3PO4 can effectively reduce the energy consumption during the preparation of activated carbon, the activation time is short, and the production cost is low, but it is relatively difficult to prepare activated carbon with a large specific surface area.

Physicochemical activation

For the production of activated carbon and silica, physicochemical activation of carbonized rice hulls can also be used. Activated carbon is made by treating rice husks containing hydrocarbons with an alkaline solution and using water vapor to activate the solids. Compared with the direct activation method, the amount of carbonized rice husk was more than doubled. After acid-base treatment, the specific surface area of carbon rice husk increases, and the activity of activated carbon is higher than that of alternative carbon.